Sensitivity Analysis of Flutter Velocity to Structural Properties of a Composite Wing

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Aerospace Research Institute, Ministry of Science and Research, Tehran, Iran



The main goal of this article is to analyze the sensitivity and find the most effective property among structural properties that have the most significant impact on the flutter velocity of a composite wing. For this purpose, the corresponding Aeroelastic equations of a composite wing have been derived using the Euler-Bernoulli beam model and discretized by the Galerkin method. Based on Jones's unsteady aerodynamic model, aerodynamic loads have been incorporated into the aeroelastic model. Then, flutter velocity was determined through eigenvalue analysis of the obtained aeroelastic equations. The Flutter velocity changes with a specific interval of each input. With the help of reverse engineering, the effects of structural properties (including material properties and effective stiffness) and their sensitivity were determined. The results show that the Torsional Effective Stiffness has the most significant effect and high sensitivity on flutter velocity. In this work, other parameters (including flow properties, wing geometry, and airfoil) are assumed to be unchangeable. The geometry of the wing is considered rectangular and straight.


Main Subjects

  1. H. Hodges and G. A. Pierce, Introduction to structural dynamics and aeroelasticity, vol. 15. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  2. Theodorsen and I. Garrick, Mechanism of flutter: a theoretical and experimental investigation of the flutter problem vol. 685: NACA Langley Field, VA, USA, 1940.
  3. Garrick and W. H. Reed III, "Historical development of aircraft flutter," Journal of Aircraft, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 897-912, 1981. doi:
  4. Watanabe, S. Suzuki, M. Sugihara, and Y. Sueoka, "An experimental study of paper flutter," Journal of Fluids and Structures, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 529-542, 2002. doi:
  5. Goland, "The Flutter of a Uniform Cantilever Wing," Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. A197-A208, 2021, doi:
  6. A. Shubov, "Flutter phenomenon in aeroelasticity and its mathematical analysis," Journal of Aerospace Engineering, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 2006. doi:
  7. Goland and Y. Luke, "The flutter of a uniform wing with tip weights," 1948.
  8. L. Runyan and C. E. Watkins, "Flutter of a uniform wing with an arbitrarily placed mass according to a differential-equation analysis and a comparison with experiment," 1949.
  9. Lottati, "Flutter and divergence aeroelastic characteristics for composite forward swept cantilevered wing," Journal of Aircraft, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1001-1007, 1985. doi:
  10. H. Gern and L. Librescu, "Effects of externally mounted stores on aeroelasticity of advanced swept cantilevered aircraft wings," Aerospace science and technology, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 321-333, 1998. doi:
  11. H. Hodges, M. J. Patil, and S. Chae, "Effect of thrust on bending-torsion flutter of wings," Journal of Aircraft, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 371-376, 2002. doi:
  12. Librescu and O. Song, Thin-walled composite beams: theory and application vol. 131. Springer Science & Business Media, 2005.
  13. Zafari, M. Jalili, and A. Mazidi, "Analytical nonlinear flutter and sensitivity analysis of aircraft wings subjected to a transverse follower force," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, vol. 233, no. 4, pp. 1503-1515, 2019. doi:
  14. Khudayarov, F. Z. Turaev, K. Ruzmetov, and A. Tukhtaboev, "Numerical modeling of the flutter problem of viscoelastic elongated plate," in AIP Conference Proceedings, 2012, vol. 2402, no. 1. AIP Publishing. doi:
  15. A. Guimarães, F. D. Marques, and A. J. Ferreira, "On the modeling of nonlinear supersonic flutter of multibay composite panels," Composite Structures, vol. 232, p. 111522, 2020. doi:
  16. H. Dowell, A modern course in aeroelasticity vol. 217. Springer, 2014.
  17. L. Logan, First Course in the Finite Element Method, Enhanced Edition, SI Version: Cengage Learning, 2022.
  18. A. A.-H. Ali and M. I. Hamed, "The effect of laminated layers on the flutter speed of composite wing," Journal of Engineering, vol. 18, no. 08, pp. 924-934, 2012, [Online]. Available:
  19. Modarres, M. P. Kaminskiy, and V. Krivtsov, Reliability engineering and risk analysis: a practical guide: CRC Press, 2016.
  20. Talafi Noghani and M. Nadjafi, "Thermal Sensitivity Analysis of a Telemetry Antenna in Sub-Orbital Spaceflights," International Journal of Reliability, Risk and Safety: Theory and Application, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 13-19, 2021. doi:
  21. Teja Nallapu and J. Thangavelautham, "Design and sensitivity analysis of spacecraft swarms for planetary moon reconnaissance through co-orbits," Acta Astronautica, vol. 178, pp. 854-869, 2021. doi:
  22. Nadjafi, M. Farsi, and F. Ommi, "Uncertainty analysis of spray injection process in a model scale liquid fuel micro-motor," Iranian Journal of Mechanical Engineering Transactions of the ISME, vol. 21, no. 2, 2020. doi: