Software Safety Analysis with UML-Based SRBD and Fuzzy VIKOR- Based FMEA

Document Type : Original Research Article




Software often controls the behavior of mechanical and electrical systems, as well as interactions among their components in cyber-physical systems (CPS). The risks in CPS systems could result in losing tools, features, performance, and even life. Therefore, safety analysis for software in these systems is a highly critical and serious issue. The use of reliability block diagram is a method for checking the safety and reliability of systems. A reliability block diagram is a diagrammatic method for showing how component reliability contributes to the success or failure of a complex system. In this paper, a method for generating RBDs is presented analysis and demonstration of this method capability to evaluation of a software safety by use-case analysis, use-case diagram review, and use-case specification. Then, a Fuzzy VIKOR-based FMEA is used for further evaluation due to the presence of uncertain data. Finally, it is applied to a real CPS.


  1. Rajkumar, R., Lee, I., Sha, L., & Stankovic, J. (2010, June). Cyber-physical systems: the next computing revolution. In Design Automation Conference (DAC), 2010 47th ACM/IEEE(pp. 731-736). IEEE.‏
  2. Wu, F. J., Kao, Y. F., & Tseng, Y. C. (2011). From wireless sensor networks towards cyber physical systems. Pervasive and Mobile computing, 7(4), 397-413.‏
  3. Murali D V. Verification of Cyber Physical Systems. Unpublished Master of Science Thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, 2013.
  4. Kim, H., Wong, W. E., Debroy, V., & Bae, D. (2010, November). Bridging the gap between fault trees and UML state machine diagrams for safety analysis. In Software Engineering Conference (APSEC), 2010 17th Asia Pacific (pp. 196-205). IEEE.‏
  5. Dowson, M. (1997). The Ariane 5 software failure. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, 22(2), 84.‏
  6. Anthony, M., Arno, R., Dowling, N., & Schuerger, R. (2012, May). Reliability analysis for power to fire pump using fault tree and RBD. In Industrial & Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference (I&CPS), 2012 IEEE/IAS 48th (pp. 1-7). IEEE.‏
  7. Fazlollahtabar, H., & Niaki, S. T. A. (2018). Fault Tree Analysis for Reliability Evaluation of an Advanced Complex Manufacturing System. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems, 17(01), 107-118.‏
  8. Yang, Z., Bonsall, S., & Wang, J. (2008). Fuzzy rule-based Bayesian reasoning approach for prioritization of failures in FMEA. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 57(3), 517-528.‏
  9. Wang, Z., Gao, J. M., Wang, R. X., Chen, K., Gao, Z. Y., & Zheng, W. (2018). Failure Mode and Effects Analysis by Using the House of Reliability-Based Rough VIKOR Approach. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 67(1), 230-248.‏
  10. Deng, X., & Jiang, W. (2017). Fuzzy risk evaluation in failure mode and effects analysis using a D numbers based multi-sensor information fusion method. Sensors, 17(9), 2086.‏
  11. Opricovic, S. (2011). Fuzzy VIKOR with an application to water resources planning. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(10), 12983-12990.‏
  12. Tiwari, S., & Gupta, A. (2015). A systematic literature review of use case specifications research. Information and Software Technology, 67, 128-158.‏
  13. Towhidnejad, M., Wallace, D. R., & Gallo Jr, A. M. (2003, December). Validation of object oriented software design with fault tree analysis. In null (p. 209). IEEE.‏
  14. Vyas, P., & Mittal, R. K. (2012, March). Eliciting additional safety requirements from use cases using SFTA. In Recent Advances in Information Technology (RAIT), 2012 1st International Conference on (pp. 163-169). IEEE.‏
  15. Kim, H., Wong, W. E., Debroy, V., & Bae, D. (2010, November). Bridging the gap between fault trees and UML state machine diagrams for safety analysis. In Software Engineering Conference (APSEC), 2010 17th Asia Pacific (pp. 196-205). IEEE.‏
  16. Romani, M. A. D. S., Lahoz, C. H. N., & Yano, E. T. (2010). Identifying dependability requirements for space software systems. Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management, 2(3), 287-300.‏
  17. Oveisi, S., & Ravanmehr, R. (2017). SFTA-Based Approach for Safety/Reliability Analysis of Operational Use-Cases in Cyber-Physical Systems. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 17(3), 031018.‏
  18. Liu, H. C., You, J. X., You, X. Y., & Shan, M. M. (2015). A novel approach for failure mode and effects analysis using combination weighting and fuzzy VIKOR method. Applied Soft Computing, 28, 579-588.‏
  19. Safari, H., Faraji, Z., & Majidian, S. (2016). Identifying and evaluating enterprise architecture risks using FMEA and fuzzy VIKOR. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 27(2), 475-486.‏
  20. Rajput, B. S., & Chourey, V. (2015). UML based Approach for System Reliability Assessment. International Journal of Computer Applications, 131(2).‏
  21. Liu, H., Deng, X., & Jiang, W. (2017). Risk evaluation in failure mode and effects analysis using fuzzy measure and fuzzy integral. Symmetry, 9(8), 162.‏
  22. Ford Motor Company. Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis(FMEA), Reference Manual; Ford Motor Compony: Dearborn, MI, USA, 1988.
  23. Kun, Z. H. A. N. G., Weiren, K. O. N. G., Peipei, L. I. U., Jiao, S. H. I., Yu, L. E. I., & Jie, Z. O. U. (2018). Assessment and sequencing of air target threat based on intuitionistic fuzzy entropy and dynamic VIKOR. Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics, 29(2), 305-310.‏
  24. Liao, H., Xu, Z., & Zeng, X. J. (2015). Hesitant fuzzy linguistic VIKOR method and its application in qualitative multiple criteria decision making. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 23(5), 1343-1355.‏
  25. Wang, C. H., & Pang, C. T. (2011). Using VIKOR Method for Evaluating Service Quality of Online Auction under Fuzzy Environment. International Journal of Computer Science Engineering & Technology, 1(6).‏
  26. Zhu, P., Han, J., Liu, L., & Lombardi, F. (2015). A stochastic approach for the analysis of dynamic fault trees with spare gates under probabilistic common cause failures. IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 64(3), 878-892.‏
  27. Oveisi, S., & Ravanmehr, R. (2017). Analysis of software safety and reliability methods in cyber physical systems. International journal of critical infrastructures, 13(1), 1-15.‏
  28. Kamandi, A., Azgomi, M. A., & Movaghar, A. (2006). Transformation of UML models into analyzable OSAN models. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science,vol. 159, 3-22.